An academic degree is not necessary to be an intelligent person
You don’t need high instruction, a university degree or being a professional to be an intelligent person, and many times above the average. In the meantime, one can find a person with a high instruction, college degrees... and it is indeed mediocre from the viewpoint of intelligence, and it is mediocre at work, in life. And why, all this happens?
This is really a very complex issue that has been seriously debated several times by scientists for years now. Thus, defining intelligence has always been a controversial matter. Before such diversity of opinions in 1960 Vernon suggested a classification for the main definitions of intelligence.
Such classification is based on three groups: the psychological one which shows intelligence as a cognitive capacity, of learning and of relation; the biological one that considers the adaption capacity to new situations; and the operative one, which are those that make a circular definition by stating that intelligence is "...what measures the tests of intelligence."
Several psychological theories given by the end of the 20th century gain huge celebrity: that of multiple intelligences, triarchic and the emotional intelligences.
Such diversity of approaches points at the complex nature of the term, which can only be partially described through the enumeration of process or attributes; which for being so varied, makes it hard to reach at a single definition. Anyway we should reach at it thru explanations rather than by given concepts to make it more valid for everyday life.
Without a doubt intelligence implies one’s capacity to getting adapted to different contexts while making abstractions, thinking rationally, finding out solutions to problems, learning new strategies thru life experience or behaving in a way to reach at given goals.
It is a faculty that comprises several types of capacities and attitudes, which makes its way in different ways into different cultural backgrounds. Nevertheless, an intelligent conduct has common features in any culture: it shows the capacity to get adapted by learning thru experience, solving problems and reasoning clearly
Intelligence anticipates or brings forward the consequences of a present-day situation; manipulates and arrange the data of experience; uses symbols (figures, words, codes); and relate or establish connections between diverse information and away in space and time. Today we know that it depends so much on genetic or environmental factors. The collected data on the environmental influence point that a poor background produces remarkable vacuums in people’s intellectual performance.
It is good to say that for the last decades several types of intelligences have taken place like Artificial Intelligence.
It is the science of designing and programming computation systems to carry out intelligent projects and simulate processes of the human thought, for example, intuitive reasoning, learning and language comprehension. It includes certain practical applications like chess playing, robots for industrial use and expert systems.
There also exists the Crystallized Intelligence which is the accumulated knowledge and verbal qualities which grow with the passing of time.
The called Emotional Intelligence, which is a term given by US psychologist Daniel Goleman in 1995 refers to a way of interacting with the world that takes into account emotions and comprises skills like impulse control, self-consciousness, motivation, enthusiasm, perseverance, empathy, among other factors.
Goleman says that the Emotional Intelligence shape features of the temper like self-discipline and altruism that are essential for social adaptation. It is the harmonization between emotion and reason and gives an updating on the relation between the emotional capacity, balanced personality and the factors of global intelligence.
They also talk about Fluid Intelligence which is the capacity of reasoning in an abstract way; which goes declining with age.
The American Psychological Association considers that individuals differ from one to another in the way of being able to understand complex ideas, of efficiently getting adapted to the environment, as well as understanding from experience, of finding out several forms of reasoning and passing tests thru reflection.
Although science has made remarkable steps forward, there are yet controversies on this field. There is much to be studied and discovered yet. Meanwhile the concept, or today’s concepts on intelligence, is an attempt to clear out or to organize this complex phenomenon.
Photo. http://contenido.com.mx Israel Manuel Fagundo Pino