Civil aeronautics is the transportation sector that is most affected by the US economic, financial and commercial blockade against Cuba.
Only last year, the damages in the sector amounted to 288 million dollars especially by the fact that the national companies cannot operate in the US nor can the island's aircrafts fly over US territory using direct and more economic routes.
The anti-Cuban laws even prohibits the island in purchasing advance technologies, equipment, spare parts or other accessories according to a long detailed report revealed in Havana on the consequences of the persistence of the unjust and cruel policy against the Caribbean island.
The report also reveals that Cubana Airlines cannot accede to the computerized systems of distributions of Air Reserves which are of US property or interests.
The report points that Cubana Airlines cannot buy in the United States or give its emergency equipment installed in the aircrafts maintenance because they are produced by the Air Cruisers Company.
But the growing aggression damages the island's hydraulic infrastructure because one year credit of redemption must be requested and high interests rates with the objective of purchasing high density Polyethylene for the production of pipes.
In November of 2014, the Spanish Sterling SIHI company informed BM group, provider of the Cubahidraulica Company the cancelation of 15 pumps due to the US economic war against Cuba.
Even chlorine brought from a Colombian company had to be transferred to Havana through a third country due to the fear of possible sanctions and reprisals from the US.
The US still prohibits any product totally or partially elaborated with Cuban nickel, one of the island's main exports that are produced in third nations.
According to Agilent Technologies Company, there is a similar situation with the Sports Medicine Institute which are impeded from getting reagents for its Ant doping Laboratory in order to repair equipment.
The Cuban Sports Institute faces scarcity of monoclonal antibodies to determine a hormone generated by the kidneys only produced by US companies, in addition to nutrients among others for athletes.
The transportation group for tourism, TRANSTUR, estimates damages superior to 207 billion dollars due to purchases in far countries for equipment, spare parts among others.