For years, the oil supply depended on three companies that controlled the imports and refinery needed for the country: the US Esso and Texaco companies and British Shell.
However, at the request of the President Dwight D. Eisenhower (1890-1969) administration imports began to be restricted with the objective of cutting the oil supply and provoke a halt to the national economy.
The Cuban Revolutionary government obtained the commitment of the former Soviet Union, one of the main oil producers in the world of guaranteeing the necessary amounts in preferential prices.
But the negotiation angered the plans of the US oil companies and government and refused to process the Soviet oil in its installations.
Such a position violated Article 44 of the Oil Minerals Law valid since May 9th of 1938 establishing the right to process oil supplied by the State.
Before such arrogance, Havana announced the nationalization of Texaco Company on June 28th of 1960 including their capacity of refining and on July 11th the same occurred with Esso and Shell.
Several days prior, Law 851 of July 6th of 1960 established the way and manner of compensating the value of US properties that were nationalized.
However, Eisenhower had already requested the US Congress "discretional powers" to cut the import of the Cuban sugar quota.
This new disposition was added on to the already maneuvers related with the oil to the transformed economic ties through the political aggressions that aimed on being lethal for the young Cuban Revolution.
In barely 24 hours, the Council of Ministers gave the President of the Republic and Prime Minister Powers to decide on the nationalization of the US industries in Cuban territory.
Without a doubt, this constituted a step on the new economic reprisals that would be the prelude to the US economic, financial and commercial blockade that has lasted over 50 years against the country.
On July 1st, 1960, OnelioPinoIzquierdo (1912-2014), pilot of the Granma yacht and other comrades among them the Heroine of the Moncada attacks, Melba Hernandez Rodriguez del Rey (1921-2014) became among the first to carry out the revolutionary measure.
On board the Gloria tugboat and with five thousand barrels of oil they crossed the Bay of Havana arrived to the refinery dock, disembarked and lowered the US flag and raised the Cuban flag becoming the property of the people.
This is the history marking the Day of the Oil Workers, established in 2014 and for the first time will be celebrated nationwide next July 1st. / By LinoLuben Perez - ACN Special Service.